Apologetics 101: Hostile Universe

If God exists, why is most of the universe hostile to life? If you look at the universe it appears from what we can see that life as we know it could not exists. Earth is just a pale blue dot in a huge hostile universe. When we look at a satellite picture of the earth from the outermost reaches of space the earth looks like a tiny blue dot in the middle of an amazingly beautiful picture of chaos. If you look at the universe as pretty as it looks in pictures it is hostile to life, but does that make the case against God? In this video, you will find out why the earth actually makes a case for God.

Apologetics 101: Did god create the universe?

Apologetics 101: Did God Create the Universe? How do you answer that question to a non-believer without using the Bible? Based on the apparent fine-tuning of the Universe the evidence points to a designer. This designer would have the characteristics of being: spaceless, timeless, immaterial, self-existent, infinite, intelligent, personal and purposeful. This is the same way that the Bible describes God. These are the attributes of the God of the Bible, discovered without referencing the Bible.

Rev. William A. Horton

Doctorate Student at Liberty University


John 1:6-7

“God sent a man, John the Baptist, to tell about the light so that everyone might believe because of his testimony.”

‭‭In essence, the believer is the bridge between the unbeliever and Jesus. John the Baptist was described as a witness, born to proclaim all the wonders of Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God who was to take away the sins of the world. John’s primary purpose was to connect people with the Savior of their souls.

Now, just as John was called to be a witness, so is every believer. Our words and actions form the link between the lost and Christ. If we choose not to shine for Him, the unbeliever is left with no hope of redemption

As it was John’s responsibility to prepare for the first coming of Christ, so it is our responsibility to prepare for the second. How are we to do so? By proclaiming the glorious good news of redemption!


What is LMX?

Leader-Member Exchange

            Leadership contingency theory is credited to Fiedler in 1967 who stated that the leader’s relationship with their followers, task structure, and position of power regulated how effective a leader was (Antonikis & Day, 2018). Soon after the contingency movement started, another line of research looked strictly at the relationship between the leader and the follower (Antonikis & Day, 2018). These studies were initially called the dyad linkage theory but eventually evolved into what is commonly known today as the Leader-Member Exchange (Antonikis & Day, 2018). Leader-Member Exchange describes the relationship between the leader and their followers (Antonikis & Day, 2018). In LMX a leader creates close relationships with only a few followers, and they have high-quality interactions (Sharifirad & Hajhoseiny, 2018). A high-quality leader-follower relationship is based on trust and respect (Antonikis & Day, 2018). These high-quality relationships go well beyond just what is required by the job, and these relationships are mutually beneficial (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, Contingency Theories of Leadership, 2019).

Most people can understand the LMX better by thinking of your past coaches or teachers who had a hands-on approach (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, Contingency Theories of Leadership, 2019). These coaches or teachers had their in-group and out-group (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, Contingency Theories of Leadership, 2019). Coaches had the player they spent extra time mentoring and teachers had students that seemed to be always picked in class before other students. Classic LMX is the haves and the have nots. Some employees have a quality relationship with their leader and others do not. Recently the LMX model has changed, and it is suggested that leaders should develop special relationships with all followers (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, Contingency Theories of Leadership, 2019). The outcome of a leader making high-quality relationships with all followers results in the entire team becoming the in-group (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, Contingency Theories of Leadership, 2019).

Biblical Context for LMX

Leader-Member Exchange theory deals with building special high-quality relationships between the leader and follower (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, Contingency Theories of Leadership, 2019). Jesus demonstrated the LMX theory in His leadership style. Jesus had the crowds that followed Him everywhere. Luke 14:25 tells us “Now large crowds were going along with Jesus.” Matthew 4 also reaffirms that by saying, “Large crowds followed Him (Jesus) from Galilee and the Decapolis and Jerusalem and Judea and from beyond the Jordan.” However, Jesus had His smaller in-group with the twelve disciples. “He (Jesus) called his disciples to him and chose twelve of them, whom he also designated apostles: Simon (whom he named Peter), his brother Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Simon who was called the Zealot, Judas son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor” (Luke 6:13-16 NIV). Then Jesus had His inner-inner circle of three, “About eight days later Jesus took Peter, John, and James up on a mountain to pray” (Luke 9:28 NIV).

Jesus communicated to each group differently. To the crowds, He preached, healed and performed miracles. To the twelve disciples, Jesus lived with them and taught them on a deeper level. When Jesus took the smallest group of three onto the mountain, He appeared to them with a face that was transformed and clothes that became dazzling white (Luke 9:29). The inner-inner circle saw Jesus the Son of God. The new model of LMX teaches that a leader should develop a high-quality relationship with everyone on the team (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, Contingency Theories of Leadership, 2019). LMX can be Biblical or non-Biblical depending on the way one look at it. If you look at the twelve disciples as Jesus’ in-group, then it is Biblical. Jesus developed a close relationship with each one of them. However, Jesus still had a smaller inner-group with the three. Also, if one considers the large crowds that followed Jesus, He did not have a high-quality relationship with them. Biblically speaking LMX is best defined as a small-group of high-quality relationships. The new model of LMX that everyone should be in the in-group does not apply Biblically. LMX is a theory that every Christian leader could benefit from because it is about building relationships.

-William A. Horton

Doctorate Student at Liberty Univerisity

Falling Away

According to 2 Peter 1 we can avoid falling away from the Lord. Join us as Pastor William A. Horton preaches out of 2 Peter 1:3-13.

1. Spiritual Growth is Directly Related to Biblical Obedience

2. Growing and Knowing are inseparable

3. Obedience leads to Understanding

4. You can’t clearly see your future if you are not growing in the present

5. If these qualities are being added to your faith, you can be assured you will never fall away